2011년 7월 31일 일요일

Israel should catch the wind

Wind energy is not generally considered worthwhile for Israel, but that's a costly misconception.

31 July 11 21:20, Daniel Farb
Global Wind Day, to celebrate the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the world, passed without a peep in Israel. I am often asked, “There isn’t much wind in Israel. Why should I support wind in Israel?” I’d like to provide some answers to that question. First, there IS wind in Israel. A good estimate is several thousand megawatts worth of it, but most people don’t pay attention to it because it is invisible unless it rustles the leaves of trees. The long central mountain range, the coast, the Golan, and several areas of the Negev have excellent wind resources. There is actually more wind energy hitting Israel than solar, because wind is concentrated solar energy, and because wind can be captured vertically much better than sun, and its capture doesn’t interfere with agriculture.
A variation on the question is, “But we have now found enough gas to last us 40 years!” One response to that is that we live in international markets, and there is no way that the gas it will be saved only for local use. Furthermore, it only helps us put off the day of reckoning. When that day comes, we will have an even harder time fitting in renewable energy that wasn’t part of the planned infrastructure, and our electrical needs will be several times higher. In addition, we need to reverse climate change now.
Secondly, wind energy can contribute to the economy. Wind energy was recently identified as the second best global growth industry for the next five years; this can be a great export market for Israel if it is addressed properly. This means that government money should be allocated immediately to help Israeli companies enter the sector more strongly and quickly.
This market for wind energy will only be accelerated by the recent nuclear disaster in Japan and Germany’s decision to drop nuclear power. Two of the world’s major economies are thus going green faster than anticipated. And it is well known that China is accelerating its development of renewable energy.
An objection might be made to government support of an industry. There are several answers to that:
1.It works. An evaluation of solar subsidies in Germany revealed that it created a new industry and hundreds of thousands of jobs, even though Germany is not very sunny.
2.Every other country supports crucial industries and Israel already does it with targeted industries. Why not consider wind in Israel a targeted industry?
3.We are currently in a super-cautious investment environment where capital markets are not working appropriately and the government needs to step in temporarily.
Wind energy can contribute to the economy in other ways. It doesn’t require purchase of fuels from other countries and a loss of foreign exchange. Most of the best wind in Israel is in the periphery, and wind energy installations can provide an important boost to underprivileged sectors. All prices are affected by energy costs, and anything that brings basic costs down assists economic development.
Third, wind energy makes an important contribution to the grid. What is the concept of peak power? If a country needs 500 gigawatts most of the day but 1000 gigawatts for just a few hours of peak use each summer, then it needs to build enough power plants to provide the “peak power” of 1,000 gigawatts. That means huge direct and indirect costs plus additional pollution to meet the demand that occurs a small percentage of the time. Many renewables can take up that slack between standard usage and peak usage at a much lower cost. That is only one major reason why it is worthwhile for a government to offer subsidies for renewables: because they save the economy money.
Wind in Israel is a perfect match for the peak power problem. Because of the geography of the country, the wind usually blows from late morning through the evening in different areas of the country, so it provides a lot of coverage of consumer needs. Combined with solar, which peaks at mid-day, it becomes even more effective in meeting the country’s power needs.
An objection might be raised as to whether wind is cost-effective on its own without a subsidized tariff. The answer in many locations is “no” right now, but as soon as installations begin in quantity, prices will likely drop. In addition, we have to take account now of the big unknown of energy inflation. We don’t want to wait till oil is over $200 a barrel to make our adjustments in crisis mode.
Fourth, providing wind and other renewable sources of power is a security issue. What if even a single power plant were disabled for some reason? Distributed power produced in thousands of different locations throughout the country is less likely to be knocked out at one time. This is even more important with the advent of the electric car now that the transportation sector is becoming dependent on the supply of electricity.
About a year and a half ago, I was the wind energy expert on a panel held at the Council for Foreign Relations in Washington. We spent a lot of time discussing the value of creating nodes of power production that could be isolated from the central grid in the event of a magnetic pulse attack from a country like Iran.
Here are some other possible objections to wind power in Israel:
Question: Israel is a major migratory path for birds. Won’t wind turbines interfere with that?
Answer: In some cases that is true, but only to a minor extent, and only with certain turbine types. There are certain types of small vertical axis turbines that pose absolutely no problem for birds.
Question: Israel is a small country with a lot of military needs and other land needs. Will wind turbines interfere with land use, the Air Force, and with radar?
Answer: There are a few areas that are unlikely to be settled with more than cows or simple agriculture and are not militarily sensitive. Those areas should be set aside for placement of higher output large wind turbines, which require isolation for many reasons. Israel is a small wind turbine country. Small vertical axis turbines do not interfere with the Air Force and radar. Because of the shortage of land, the emphasis should be on rooftops, traffic islands, and other locations that don’t interfere with agriculture or land use. The only type of turbine that can come this close to people is a vertical axis turbine.
Question: We all know that bureaucracy and zoning are a major hurdle in Israel. How can a wind turbine owner deal with that?
Answer: The turbine needs to be zoned easily, so the turbine needs to be pleasing to look at and quiet for the people in the building. It is possible to design such turbines.
There are some clear policy steps that can help wind energy companies in Israel succeed in creating a better world and a better local economy:

  • Continuation and expansion of the tariff program under the Ministry of Infrastructures.
  • Rapid allocation of special funds for grants for company development in wind, just like the recent allocation to biofuels.
  • Opening up agricultural areas for wind turbines in a responsible way. Many areas are zoned for agriculture but are unusable for agriculture. Furthermore, wind turbines can replace trees as windbreakers in agricultural areas.
  • National zoning criteria that make approval of rooftop power routine. Even better would be a formula that requires rooftop power on every new building. Let it become as routine as rooftop hot water. This allows free markets to operate to choose the best solution. In one location, it may be solar, another wind, and even water in certain skyscrapers.
  • The best way for the government to get mileage for money invested in the sector would be loan guarantees, which leverage the amount of capital available, for projects, research and development, demonstration projects, and manufacturing. Just as the Chief Scientist program has paid for itself many times over for a variety of technology companies, such a program would likely be successful. In this case, however, to speed development and to deal with the fact that there is a temporary shortage of capital, financing should be guaranteed up to 100% of a project, whether it is a power or a research project.
  • Provide an additional allocation of subsidized renewable energy from any source that gives additional incentives to Israeli-manufactured goods. Ontario in Canada has already enacted such a program to benefit local industry.
With the suggestions mentioned above in mind, Israel can catch up to the countries that are leaders in the wind industry, and reverse the shame of being one of the laggards in the percentage of renewable energy in the developed world. It would make sense for Israel to be a leader in wind technology and its implementation.
Dr. Daniel Farb is the founder and chairman of the Leviathan Energy group of companies, which includes two wind companies that won second and third place in a contest for the best clean technologies in Israel, a hydroelectric company that received the Eureka label from the EU and the Israeli Chief Scientist, and five others. Leviathan Energy is a member of the Israeli Association of Renewable Energy and the I-Consortium

2011년 7월 27일 수요일

Renewable Energy Revolution Sweeps Into Bolivia

Keep AC to 26 or higher: Government

The government urged citizens yesterday to limit their use of electricity by maintaining a room temperature of 26 degrees Celsius or higher in their homes and offices and to minimize use of air conditioners and fans during peak hours.

A recent surge in demand threatens the power supply and raises brownout fears.

The call comes as power use has been fast rising amid a heat wave and robust economic activity. The country’s maximum power demand reached 70.96 million kilowatts on Monday, breaching last year’s 69.89 million kilowatts. It further rose to 71.30 million kilowatts the following day.

Announcing a statement, Choi Joong-kyung, minister of knowledge economy, said a surge in use of electricity is inevitable due to the economic recovery, but said the problem is households’ increasing use of electricity.

“One of the major causes of the recent spike in power use is the rise in use of electricity by households and buildings for air conditioning,” Choi said. “A 20 percent cut in the use of air conditioners and fans [in all households and buildings] will save 3 million kilowatts of electricity.”

The five-point statement also advised people to turn off any unnecessary lights and to increase their use of public transportation to cut the country’s overall use of energy.

“Energy conditions are not so favorable to us this summer, but we are confident we will overcome any problems if all our citizens combine their efforts,” it said.

Choi said this year’s maximum power use is expected to surpass a record high of 73.14 million kilowatts in the second week of August, bringing down the country’s electricity reserve rate to less than 5.6 percent of its total supply capabilities, or 4.2 million kilowatts, far below the 7 percent level considered the safe margin and also the 6.4 percent reached last year. Once the reserve rate falls below 4 percent, the country has to take emergency measures to avoid a nationwide brownout.

The 73.14 million kilowatt record was set on Jan. 17. Maximum demand in the summer is expected to reach 74.77 million kilowatts.

2011년 7월 25일 월요일

Nautilus Solar closes financing on 9MW of PV projects in northeast US, California

     Nautilus Solar Energy
  • A previous installation in New Jersey by Nautilus Solar.
A subsidiary of US Bancorp and a partner of KeyCorp have helped Nautilus Solar Energy close its recent financing round for a 9MW portfolio of solar projects in California and the northeast US. The financial institutions offered Nautilus long-term tax equity and debt financing, which will go towards the development of a string of distributed generation projects under 15 to 20-year PPA’s.
Projects under the 9MW portfolio include rooftop, canopy and ground-mounted installations that will be installed at school districts and municipalities in New Jersey, Maryland and California with a savings tag of over US$17 million expected during the life of the PPA’s. Nautilus Solar additionally disclosed that it is in talks with lenders to finance a 10MW portfolio of distributed generation projects under the Ontario Power Authority’s FiT program.
Jim Rice, CEO of Nautilus Solar, remarked, "I'm proud that the Nautilus team has proven that we can develop, construct, aggregate and fund distributed solar projects. Our future plans focus on repeating this portfolio aggregation structure with more MWs, in more markets, including raising project level equity for the portfolios."

2011년 7월 19일 화요일

North American Power launches 100% renewable energy option

Retail energy supplier North American Power has launched a new option for homes and businesses across America to buy 100% renewable energy.
The new American Wind offering, a Green-e Energy certified product, marks a “significant milestone” for the Connecticut-based energy company, it said.
The firm is expanding its services from deregulated energy markets to all fifty states, and amplify their customers’ ability to save, give, share and earn.
As with all North American Power products, American Wind customers will be able to give back to deserving charities including Save the Children, Action Against Hunger, The National MS Society and others via Mission to Millions, the company’s ongoing philanthropic program.
“From the start, we have been dedicated to offering our customers greater choice and the power to influence change,” said Kerry Breitbart, co-founder and CEO of North American Power. “With American Wind, we are working to advance the green energy movement and increase our country’s energy independence by motivating individuals to initiate change.”


Built on an effective customer referral network, North American Power incentivizes customers to earn financial rewards for sharing its products. The company pays cash bonuses for referrals on an upfront and monthly basis for every customer that activates an account based on a fellow customer’s recommendation.
North American Power’s leadership believes that this innovative combination of customer referrals and social network activation, which they call cause-based social networking, will drive the winds of change for renewable energy.
“The problems facing our environment and our economy are interdependent,” notes Breitbart. “So the solutions to these problems should be interdependent as well.”

Solar water heaters best solution for technology for green homes

Solar hot water systems are the best solution for homes wanting a green heating technology to reduce carbon emissions, according to Ethical Consumer magazine.
In the magazine’s latest Buyers’ Guide, the publication compared biomass boilers, ground source heat pumps and solar hot water heating.
The magazine found that while biomass boilers can provide the largest carbon savings, they are also among the most expensive renewable heat technologies, costing around £11,000. The Buyers’ Guide also questions the long-term sustainability of biomass feedstock.
Biomass boilers can also end up costing £40 a year more to run than a typical condensing gas boiler.
By comparison, solar hot water systems are the cheapest renewable technology to install at around £4800 for a typical system, saving a modest amount of carbon and up to £60 a year on energy bills against a typical condensing gas boiler.
“As the cheapest and easiest technology to install, if households are looking to buy a renewable-heating system in our view the best option would be to choose a solar hot water system,” says editor Rob Harrison.
“The launch of the Renewable Heat Incentive means that there's never been a better time for homeowners to think about installing renewable-heat technologies,” he adds. “Over time this initiative will in effect pay for whatever system you choose.”

2011년 7월 15일 금요일

Small Wind Turbines Rise in Popularity as Home Depot Starts Selling Them

Thu Jul 14, 2011 1:06am EDT
Small wind turbines are growing in popularity and Home Depot will begin selling them in stores in some of the windier parts of the country.
Arizona-based Southwest Windpower, one of the pioneers and leading manufacturers of small wind turbines, says its Skystream 3.7 turbine will be available at stores in Texas, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming and California, and will expand to other states.
Southwest says the turbine is the first compact, all-inclusive grid-connected personal wind turbine with controls and inverter built in.
Designed for use on farms, homes and businesses, the turbine can produce up to 400 kWh of clean electricity per month depending on the wind resource and site location. The average US home uses about 930 kwh per month according to government figures.
The Skystream 3.7 price is based on where it's installed. A survey of websites that sell it shows it ranges from $6,000 to $9,000 before incentives. Customers may be eligible for a 30 percent federal tax credit and local incentives available through state governments and utilities.
In 2009, close to 10,000 small wind turbines were sold in the US, according to the American Wind Energy Association - up from only 2,100 turbines in 2001.
However, because modern, residential wind power is relatively new in the US, permitting and zoning rules are an obstacle in many parts of the country, according to a recent story in USA Today.
Some cities, like Boston, are leading the way by adopting codes to clarify issues like installation height and noise requirements.
James Hunt, the city's chief of environmental and energy services, told USA Today that small scale wind is part of a broader vision the city has for renewable energy.
"We do envision the day when we will have houses that are super efficient, that are generating renewable energy through solar and building-integrated wind, and they are producing more energy than they consume and exporting energy into the grid," he says.

2011년 7월 14일 목요일

Barefoot Grandmothers Install Solar Power

The expression "Teach a Man to Fish" might now
be replaced by "Teach a Rural Grandma to Install Solar Power."

Mahatma Gandhi's central belief was that the knowledge, skills
and wisdom found in villages should be used for development
before getting skills from outside.

Barefoot College in India has implemented his message,
training rural people to be solar engineers.

They found that the best candidates were middle aged women.
Reading skills are not necessary - they are trained without
using the written word.

Worldwide, they have brought solar expertise to over 750 villages,
that's over 19,000 households that lacked electricity in 19

The most powerful aspect? Upon returning home they establish
workshops, teaching others in the village to install, maintain
and repair the systems.

See this powerful video about our changing world!

2011년 7월 11일 월요일

Rooftop Solar Power And Australia's Carbon Price

The boost that large scale solar will receive as a result of Australia's carbon pricing scheme will be welcome, but additional targeted support for small scale and medium solar energy seems to have been overlooked.
Small and medium scale solar power systems are the driving force behind Australia's distributed electricity generation revolution says the CEO of Energy Matters, Jeremy Rich; who believes while continually increasing electricity costs and existing solar rebates and incentives will see more households making the switch, further uptake needs to be encouraged.

"We welcome the support for large scale solar announced on Sunday, but echoing a statement I made recently, the government needs to further its targeted support for small and medium scale solar; which could come out of the funding for large-scale - no new money needs to be allocated."

"This will ensure Australia can gain the most carbon emission reduction benefit in the years ahead and accelerate the nation to the point where solar goes beyond grid parity and becomes cheaper than filthy fossil fuels."

Mr. Rich says better utilisation of rooftops can make a substantial contribution in slashing Australia's greenhouse gas emissions, create as many, if not more jobs than large scale solar and the technology addresses some controversial environmental issues, such as the amount of land required for major solar farms.

Mr Rich has previously outlined other advantages of small and medium scale solar over large scale; pointing out the company was already delivering medium scale projects at a similar price as major solar farm installation costs. He says rooftop solar power can reduce the level of infrastructure investment required by electricity networks and slash line loss associated with electricity being transmitted over long distances.

Home and commercial solar power systems are the Internet of distributed electricity generation says Max Sylvester, co-founder of Energy Matters. Decentralised solar electricity generation provides some national security benefits as well as empowering consumers in relation to their energy use. Mr. Sylvester says his company has noticed solar households also tend to become more energy efficient as a result of their hands-on role in electricity generation.

According to a statement from Beyond Zero Emissions, a group focused on developing  blueprints for the implementation of climate change solutions, "The Gillard government has ignored the most successful policy in the world for rolling out renewables deployed and reducing carbon emissions: the German renewable energy Feed-in Tariff."

Internal analysis by Beyond Zero Emissions shows that the proper implementation of a feed-in tariff to put solar panels onto every rooftop in Australia would add a very small amount to the cost of electricity over 20 years.

"By 2015 with appropriate support leading up to that date we could have solar panels installed generating cheaper electricity than buying fossil fuel electricity at the household or business meter," says the group.

Australia currently has a fractured feed in tariff system, with states offering their own programs. These programs have a habit of changing, creating confusion for consumers and instability for the solar industry. A national, uniform feed in tariff would provide surety for investors and businesses operating in the sector and also encourage more potential solar households to turn their rooftops into clean power generators

2011년 7월 8일 금요일

Growing a healthy Australian renewables industry

Growing a healthy Australian renewables industry

Solar panels (Desert Knowledge Australia)

The preview in today's Fairfax press of the ARENA funding body for renewables is a major win for climate action, because it creates an institution that will support the full potential of solar and wind.
For many years the solar and wind industries have allowed themselves to be given the run around by successive governments. Ministers would 'freeze out' renewables companies that advocated publicly, yet give the coal industry everything it wanted.
Guy Pearce, a former Liberal advisor, blew the whistle on this political corruption, whereby the fossil fuel industry had improper influence over both major parties and the public service.
This brutal energy politics will be in raw view today in Canberra, where the Government is holding an important round table with the solar industry. The round table is part of the Greens' plan to build the power of the renewables industry. It was negotiated as part of the flood levy deal. It will see 200 solar company representatives tell the Government what they need in order to grow a healthy Australian solar industry.
ARENA will have an independent structure and this should give it the ability to work constructively with the solar and wind and other renewable sectors.
The Greens have been able to bring about this coup partly because of their rising political power but also because technological progress is bringing the price of renewables down to the price of coal, around the world and in Australia.
Commentators in the media will want to focus purely on the politics of the ARENA deal, but soon enough it will become clear that there is an underlying technological inevitability at work. It is the failure of Minister Ferguson to accept that inevitability that led to his renewables programs being taken off him by Senator Christine Milne and the Greens.
The US department of energy - hardly a bunch of Greenpeace radicals! - is so confident that solar can be as cheap as coal, without subsidies, that it is funding the development of technologies that can achieve this by 2020.
Minister Ferguson still has the grim view of renewables that he has had for 20 years, telling an industry magazine this year, "I am very firmly of the view that a price on carbon is going to create a huge growth opportunity for gas. It is really the only form of alternative clean energy in Australia at the moment..."
President Obama won over the renewables industry when he chose Dr Stephen Chu, a Nobel Prize winner in Physics, to be his energy secretary. Chu is channelling billions of dollars through the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL), to get solar power cheap within nine years, for all of the US, not just the sunny states of the south west.
According to Chu's NREL, solar PV and solar thermal baseload can be around $100/MWh. This is about the price of coal generation and when solar is that cheap, it will not need any subsidies to beat coal in the energy market.
Unfortunately, Martin Ferguson is so prejudiced against the Greens that he cannot accept they are right about solar. In fact, he is so blinded by ideology that he fails to even hear the solar industry. The best example of this blindness is in the choice of cost projection data used by Ferguson to design solar programs.
While Chu's NREL is predicting solar can get to the magic cost crossover point of about $100/MWh by 2020, Minister Ferguson chooses to instead use data put out by a US electricity industry think tank. This think tank, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is mostly funded by coal and nuclear firms.
The research director says that solar will not be a cost-effective alternative until after 2050!
Today the solar industry is meeting with the Government and that is a good thing. In fact, the reason the meeting is being held is that it was a condition the Greens demanded in return for passing PM Julia Gillard's flood levy package.
Solar PV and solar thermal companies feel betrayed by Ferguson for his lack of faith in their technologies. The background paper which frames the round table today uses the EPRI figures for solar cost performance. These predict that solar will cost something like $200-$600/MWh in 2020.
This negativity towards renewable energy pollutes the whole of energy policy in Australia. Take the Solar Flagships announced last month. The Moree Solar Farm and Kogan Creek Solar Thermal Project are fantastic initiatives, which should build solar plants as big as power stations. I have great confidence in the people who won the bids, but it is a risky adventure.
Our solar industry has built 1MWh plants and is now being told to build 250MWh plants. Why such a big jump? Isn't that an invitation to fail?
Industry and academic experts have told the Government repeatedly that they prefer a sensible pathway of growth, from a few small-medium plants of 1-10MWh in PV and 20-50MWh, across a range of technologies. Then a few in the large-medium scale of 30-50MWh PV and some 100MWh+ solar thermal. Then the industry will have the skills and confidence to build the large-scale plants of 250MWh+, like the advanced industries in other countries.
The electoral benefit of this approach is that the projects would be sited around the country, with many electorates benefiting from the emergence of the solar sector. This will build the momentum of the renewable energy revolution and protect it from the Greenhouse Mafia.

2011년 7월 6일 수요일

Lighting way for solar power

By Tang Zhihao (China Daily)
Updated: 2011-07-07 07:06

SHANGHAI - Zhao Chunjiang's dream is that one day every rooftop in this eastern metropolis will have a solar power generator.
Although he admits that day is still a way off, as the director of Shanghai University of Electric Power's solar energy institute he hopes to lead by example.

Lighting way for solar power
After five years of successful operation, Zhao Chunjiang, an advocate of green energy, says he hopes his solar generator can serve as an example for others to follow. [Yong Kai / for China Daily]

In 2006 he installed 22 solar panels on the roof of his apartment to gather data on the energy source. To date, he says he has generated some 14,000 kilowatt-hours of power without a breakdown - enough to satisfy the needs of his family and export to the State Grid.
"I'm an expert and an advocate for solar energy," he said. "There were times when I tried to persuade people the technology is practical and they responded by asking why, if I was so sure, I hadn't built my own system."
So he did. He moved out from the city center and bought a rooftop property in the outlying Minhang district.
Zhao has spent about 122,000 yuan ($18,800) on his mini power plant, including the cost of the solar panels that cover a total area of 21 square meters. Based on the current electricity prices, however, it will take Zhao roughly 60 years to break even on the investment.
Being located in Shanghai also posed challenges, especially when it comes to the weather in East China.
"There are frequent typhoons in the summer, so I had to fasten the panels tightly to the roof so that they won't blow off," he said, before pointing to his system and proudly adding: "You see, they've remained safe and sound all these years."
The one problem Zhao could not solve by himself was calculating the electricity he exports, as the ammeter installed by the power company does not separate power produced by his home generator from that provided by the State Grid Corporation.
The expert initially had to pay for whatever went through the ammeter, including his exported electricity. Yet, in April this year the power company installed another ammeter to calculate the power he generates.
"The company asked me to set a price for my electricity, but as an ordinary citizen I don't think I can," he said, explaining that in countries like Japan and Germany, power firms pay as much as five times the price for electricity retrieved from green home generators. "It is a national effort to encourage the development of green energy."
Despite his optimism, Zhao admits he feels China still has some way to go when it comes to promoting solar energy. For example, he said, in 2004 it was reported that the Shanghai government was planning to install solar panels on the roofs of 100,000 families' homes.
"It seems I was the only one who really took it seriously," Zhao said with a smile. "Of course, mine is only an experiment. My target is to gather some data to see whether the idea can be promoted in Shanghai."
The grid serving China's financial powerhouse does not have the capacity to meet peak demand in the summer, with rationing coming into force whenever the mercury hits 37 C, which is often.
Some 24,000 businesses, mainly factories and other industrial plants, will face mandatory power cuts, while this year 3,000 non-industrial businesses - shopping malls and office blocks - will also be asked to close their doors to guarantee household demand, according to media reports.
Zhao said that, based on his observations, the full use of solar power in Shanghai could satisfy one-third of residents' power demands. To make it happen, though, the government needs to be in support.
"The initial investment for a set of panels is about 60,000 yuan, so it's very important to provide subsidies for residents. There also needs to be a repurchase scheme for power exported to the State Grid," Zhao said. "Neither of these are there yet."
"The biggest obstacle comes from power providers. The law stipulates that power companies need to purchase solar power, but enforcement has been poor," he added.
Without financial support from the government and power companies, Zhao said it will be hard to make his dream come true. "It takes about 30 years for a solar power generator plant that costs 60,000 yuan to pay for itself," he said. "That may be too long for ordinary people to wait."

한글 번역

상하이-Zhao Chunjiang의 꿈은 동부 대도시의 모든 집의 옥상에 태양열 발전기가 설치되는 것이다.
비록 그런 날이 아직멀다는 것은 인정하지만 상하이 대학교의 태양열 에너지협회의 책임자 로써 그는 좋은 본보기가 되었으면 한다.
2006년  그는 에너지 원에 대한 자료를 얻기 위해 그의 아파트 옥상에 22개의 태양 전지판을 설치했다. 자료에 따르면 그는 아무런 문제나 고장없이 14,000 KW/h 의 전력를 생산했다. 그것은 그의 가족 모두의 필요를 만족시키고 그 지역에 수출할 충분한 양이다.
그는 말했다. "저는 태양에너지 옹호자 이자 전문가 입니다. 제가 그 기술이 실용적이라는 것을 사람들에게 설득하려고 하면 그들은 '왜' 라고 되묻던 적이 있었습니다. 만약 제가 확신이 없었더라면 저는 제 자신만의 시스템을 만들지 않았을 것입니다."
그래서 그는 실행했습니다. 그는 도심에서 Minhang 지역에 있는 지붕이 있는 건물을 구입했습니다.
Zhao는 21제곱미터를 차지하는 태양 전지판 구입과 그의 조그마한 발전소를 위해 거의 122,000위안($18,800)를 썼습니다. 그러나 현제 전기 가격을 근거로 Zhao가 투자 비용을 회수하는데는 거의 60년이 걸릴 것입니다.
상하이에 위치해 있다는 것 또한 어려운 부분이다. 특히 중국의 동부지방의 날씨의 영향을 받을때
그는 말했다. "여름에 태풍의 영향을 자주 받습니다. 그래서 태양 전지판을 단단히 매어 두어야 태풍에 날아가지 않습니다." 그의 시스템을 손으로 가리키기 전에 그는 한마디 덧붙였습니다. " 보세요, 올해내내 이것들이 아주 안전하고 온전하게  남아있습니다."
Zhao씨가 스스로 해결하지 못한 한 가지 문제는 그가 회사에 판매하는 전기를 계산하는 것입니다.
왜냐하면 전기회사 에서 설치한 전류계는 그의 집에서 생산된 전기와 그 주의 전기 회사에서 생산된 전기를 구분할 수 없기 때문입니다.
그 전문가는 우선 그가 판매한 전기를 포함해서 전류계에 나타난 만큼의 돈을 지불했해야만 했습니다. 
그러나 올해 4월 전기 회사는 그가 생산한 전기를 계산하기 위해 다른 전류계를 설치했습니다.
그는 말했습니다. "그 회사는 저에게 제가 생산한 전기에 대해 가격을 정할 것을 요구했습니다. 그러나 일반적인 시민들이 그것을 할수 있다고 생각하지 않습니다." 일본이나 독일과 같은 다른 나라에서는 전 기 회사들이 그린 홈 가정에서 생산한 전기에 대해 5배정도의 가격을 지불합니다. 그것은 그린 에너지 발전을 위한 국가적 노력입니다.
그의 낙관론에도 불구하고, Zhao는 중국은 여전히 태양에너지 사용을 촉진하기 위해 해야할 몇가지 일이 있습니다. 그는 말했다. "2004년 상하이 정부는 100,000여 채의 가정주택의 옥상에 태양전지판을 설치한 계획이라고 보도 했습니다.
Zhao는 웃으며 말했습니다. "제가 그 정책에 대해 신중하게 생각하는 유일한 사람인것 같았습니다. 물론 제 태양 전지판은 단지 실험을 위한 것입니다. 제 목표는 상하이에서 그 생각이 실현될 수 있는가를 확인하기 위해 정보를 모으는것 입니다.
Grid를 제공하는 중국의 경제 부처는 여름 최대 수요를 만족 시킬만한 능력을 갖고 있지 않습니다. Mercury가 37C에 이를 때마다 전기 할당량을 배급하는 것이 효력을 발휘할 것입니다.
주요 공장과 산업시설의 24,000명의 사업자들은 의무적인 단전에 직면할 것입니다. 올 한해 동안 3,000명의 쇼핑몰과 사무실의 비산업 근로자들 또한 가정의 요구를 보장 하기위해 사업폐쇄를 요구 받게 될 것입니다.
Zhao씨는 말했습니다. 그의 관찰에 따르면 상하이 에서 태양에너지를 완전히 사용한다면 그곳 거주자들의 1/3의 전력 수요를 맞출수 있다고 말했습니다. 그리고 이렇게 되기 위해서 정부의 지원이 필요합니다.
태양 전지판 한 세트를 위한 첫 투자 비용은 60,000위안 입니다. 그래서 거주자들을 위해 보조금을 지원하는 것은 매우 중요합니다. 또한 생산된 전기를 주 전기회사에 돠는 계획 또한 필요합니다. 그러나 이 둘중 어느것도 아직 준비되어 있지 않습니다.
가장 큰 장애물은 전기 공급자들 입니다. 법은 전기 회사들이 태양에너지를 구입하고독 규정학고 있지만 그것이 잘 시행되지 않고 있습니다.
정부나 전기회사로 부터의 재정적 지원 없이는 그의 꿈이 실현되기는 쉽지 않을 거이라고 Zhao씨가 말했습니다. 60,000위안의 태양전지판이 스스로 이익을 내기 위해서는 30년 정도가 걸립니다. 그러나 그것은 일반적인 사람들이 기다리기에는 너무나 오랜 시간입니다.

2011년 7월 5일 화요일

Sydney seeks green expertise

Published on Tue, 05/07/2011, 09:40:55

An independent expert panel will guide environmental programs in sustainability for the City of Sydney.
독립적인 전문가 집단은 시드니를 위한 지속가능한 환경 프로그램을 안내할 것이다.

Energy efficiency expert Allan Jones said Sydney is calling for tenders from expert consultancies and legal firms in areas of sustainability to join the panel.
에너지 효율 전문가 Allan Jones는  말했다 " 시드니는 그 집단에 가입하기 위해 전문적인 자문회사와 법률 회사로 부터 감시인을 요청하고 있습니다"

“We are also seeking expert legal and regulatory advice on public and public/private joint venture corporations for energy, water and waste,” Mr Jones said.
According to Mr Jones, much of what the City of Sydney is doing has never been attempted on such a scale in Australia before, so these projects need to be implemented "in the face of climate change".
Mr Jones는 말했다. "우리는 에너지, 물, 그리고 쓰레기를 위한 공적, 공적/사적 공동 투자 회사에 대한 법률적이고 규제력을 지닌 충고를 찾고 있습니다."
Mr Jones에 따르면 시드니시가 하고 시행하고 있는 많은 것들이 이전까지 호주에서 시행된적이 없는 규모입니다. 그래서 기후변화에 맞써 이러한 프로젝트들이 시행될 필요가 있습니다. 
Mr Jones said Sydney is becoming one of the world’s leading green cities.
Mr Jones는 시드니가 세계의 선두하는 그린 도시중의 하나가 되고 있다고 말했다.

He will not be on the panel as he is an employee of the City of Sydney.
그는 그는 시드니를 위해 일하고 있기 때문에 그 집단에 들어 갈수 없다.
The council will pay for the panel appointees, but they are currently unable to provide a figure.
의회가 그 집단의 임명자들을 위해 돈을 지불할 것이다. 하지만 그 금액을 현재 알려 지지 않고있다.

Sydney’s projects in development are a trigeneration energy network for low carbon electricity, a city-wide recycled water network, an automated waste collection network, renewable gasses from agriculture and farming waste, and installation of solar panels.
발전분야 에서의 시드니 프로젝트에는 전탄소 전기를 위한 trigeneration 에너지 네트워크, 도시 대순환 물 네트워크, 자동적인 쓰레기 수거 네트워크, 농업과 농장에서 발생하는 재생 가스, 태양전지의 설치가 있다.

The panel’s appointment in assisting Sydney’s energy, water and waste staff will last for three years
시드니의 에너지, 물, 그리고 쓰레기 문제를 도와주는 그 집단의 임무는 3년동안 지속될 것이다.

2011년 7월 3일 일요일

Getting green energy... from windows

Ordinary household surfaces such as windows may soon be used to generate electricity. Scientists in Florida have developed a clear coating that can be sprayed onto glass to create solar panels -- and say it is 10 times more effective at harnessing energy than today's commercial solar technology.